Last Thursday, Krauze, of the pro-ID blog Telic Thoughts, posted this essay
in which he argued that big scientific ideas require time to come to fruition. He illustrated this idea with the early days of evolutionary theory, pointing out that it was more than sixty years after Darwin published the Origin that the neo-Darwinian synthesis was developed. This was intended as a rebuttal to those who criticize ID for not producing any peer-reviewed research. ID has only been around for a decade, you see.
I replied here
. I made four main points in reply.
The first was that, unlike ID, evolution had a solid foundation in empirical fact. A biologist of the late nineteenth century could be confident that the search for a mechanism of evolution was leading somewhere, because the fact of common descent had been adequately established by Darwin. ID, by contrast, has only proposed arguments that are completely false. Consequently, there is no reason to believe an ID research program wull ever get anywhere.
My second point was to correct Karuze's history. In his initial post he said that no theory of evolution had been proposed prior to the syntheiss of the thirties and forties. I pointed out that that was not correct.
My third point was that ID has not evolved at all in the decade or so that it has been around. This was in response to Krauze's contention that ID was developing in a manner similar to how evolution developed in its early days.
Finally, my fourth point was that people on my side would be perfectly happy to give ID proponents all the time they want. The trouble is, the leading ID proponents do not act like people who simply want time to develop their ideas. Instead, they run around claiming that they already have the goods, that they have made discoveries that should place them right along Galileo and Newton, and that they have revolutionized science.
Krauze replied here
. Since he seems to have missed every important point, I thought I'd take another stab at it.
Krauze begins by stating that the title of my blog entry, “Is ID Just a Matter of Time?” overstated his point. He was not suggesting that ID was just
a matter of time, rather his point was simply that new sciences take time to develop. He writes:
I think there are some subtle clues that point to intelligent design, but when dealing with natural history, there’s always a possibility that a closer look reveals another picture. If it turns out that there’s nothing to intelligent design, all the time in the world won’t make a difference. The point in my post was much more subtle: Sciences don’t spring up fully formed, as Athena from Zeus’ forehead. Critics should keep this in mind when demanding to see intelligent design turned into a research program.
Of course, there's no controversy that new branches of science take time to come to fruition. But the demand that ID advocates produce some significant reasearch in defense of their claims is merely a response to the conduct of its leading proponents. People like William Dembski and Michael Behe claim to already have the goods. I think it's perfectly reasonable for people on my side to point out that, actually, they don't.
We will consider this further below. But let's turn now to Krauze's bullet point replies (to my bullet-point criticisms):
Rosenhouse claims that intelligent design rests entirely on the pillars of irreducible complexity and complex specified information: “Nothing the ID folks build upon such a foundation will ever produce anything but poisonous fruit.” I don’t presume to have Rosenhouse’s gift to see into the future, so let’s instead look at the past. As I said in the comments, we have yet to see a work comparable to Darwin’s Origin of the Species on intelligent design. How was the state of evolution prior to the publication of Darwin’s great work? As Mike explained, the road was paved by Robert Chambers’ Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation. Michael Ruse describes it as “the Big Mac of popular science”, in that it was “very tasty, very filling, very accessible, and (in the opinion of the authorities) of very dubious value to one’s health. Vestiges was the archetype of pseudoscience.” (P. 48) The archetype of pseudoscience. Yet on this foundation a prosperous research program was eventually built.
I note that Krauze does not dispute my contention that arguments based on irreducible complexity or complex specified information are hopelessly flawed. Instead he points to Robert Chambers' Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation
and identifies it as the rotten foundation that nonetheless led to fruitful research in evolution.
Sadly, that's ridiculous. Chambers' work has some historical significance today, but it was rightly dismissed by the scientists of the time, including Darwin. It did not form the foundation of any important scientific research. Modern evolutionary theory begins with Darwin, and his work was a solid foundation indeed for a new science.
Krauze claims that ID has not yet produced its own Origin
. I certainly agree, but I'm surprised that an ID supporter would make that claim. I was under the impression that Dembski's The Design Inference
and No Free Lunch
, and Behe's Darwin's Black Box
were supposed to be precisely those seminal works. In fact, in this paragraph Krauze seems to be saying that the combined works of ID proponents to date is at the level of Chambers' work. And since he is happy to describe Chambers' work as the archetype of pseudoscience...
In reply to my point that there were a great many proposed theories for evolution's mechanism prior to the synthesis, Karuaze writes:
Rosenhouse claims that it’s “manifestly untrue … that there were no proposed theories of evolution prior to the synthesis”, citing Lamarckism and mutationism (the proposition that evolution was driven solely by mutations, with no input from natural selection). Here’s the definition of a “theory” from the National Academy of Science, embraced by ID critics at Dover:
Theory: In science, a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world that can incorporate facts, laws, inferences, and tested hypotheses.
Although I agree that there were some observations that were seen as providing support for Lamarckism and mutationism, I disagree that either of those were “well-substantiated”. In fact, they would seem to fit better under NAS’ definition of a hypothesis (“A tentative statement about the natural world leading to deductions that can be tested”).
In my original blog entry I made a clear distinction between a well-developed theory and a proposed theory. Krauze here argues that instead of “proposed theory” I should have said “hypothesis.” Fine. The fact remains that there were many possible meachanisms of evolution in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and all could claim a considerable amount of support. And these hypotheses
led to clear avenues of research. ID, alas, does not even have a hypothesis. It has nothing at all beyond falacious logic and distortions of modern science. This is what Krauze will have to come to terms with if he wants to draw any comparisons between modern ID and the early days of evolution.
Krauze next writes:
According to Rosenhouse, “The idea that ID has evolved over the years is nonsense. ID is today what it has always been: A political and legal strategy for uniting various schools of creationism under one banner acceptable to all.” We’ll ignore the Wedge-centrism, and get straight to the point. Ruse explains how evolution became a professional science by shedding its metaphysical baggage of progressionism, and the teleological approach has also evolved, shedding its commitment to religious apologetic. Young-earth creationism was wedded to a particular interpretation of the first chapters of Genesis, whereas even agnostics like me can contemplate intelligent design. Furthermore, ID has made the integration of evolution and design possible, something that could never have happened with young-earth creationism.
It is completely false that Young-Earth creationism is wedded to a particular interpretation of Genesis. Not if you take the Young-Earth proponents at their word anyway. They claim that all of their major conclusions (young Earth, sudden and simultaneous creation of all kinds, global flood) are justified by the best available scientific data. They are also happy to announce their faith in the Bible, and to trumpet the consonance of the scientific data with the story in Genesis. But the fact remains that scientific creationism was supposed to be a purely scientific enterprise.
More to the point, it's pure fantasy to say that ID has made the integration of evolution and design possible. To the extent that evolution and design can be integrated, it was theistic evolution that did the integrating, and that integration happened long ago. A theory in which God is constantly intervening to direct the development of life over time is not evolution. It is creationism. The theory in which God set up the initial conidtions of the universe and then allowed them to play out over the course of natural history is theistic evolution. Krauze will have to explain how, exactly, ID has made possible the integration of anything.
As for Ruse, I'd be surprised if he can really back up his claim that it was the shedding of progressionism that led to progress in evolution in the early twentieth century. There are certainly simpler explanations for evolution's sudden leap forward: progress in genetics, the quantitative approach pioneered by Fisher, the fact that all branches of science were becoming larger and more professional in the twentieth century...
Finally, Krauze writes:
Now, it just so happened that I have voiced my disapproval of teaching intelligent design in schools. But it really doesn’t matter, as I fail to see how me performing the tasks on Rosenhouse’s laundry list influences the matter at hand: In my post, I pointed out an aspect of reality. Whether Rosenhouse chooses to acknowledge this aspect or not is entirely up to himself.
Oh, please. Krauze's essay was intended as a cautionary tale about why it is unreasonable for critics of ID to demand too much from ID proponents at this early stage of its development. In that context it was perfectly reasonable for me to point out that the demands coming from people on my side are offered entirely as counters to rival claims made by ID proponents. It is the Behes and Dembskis of the world who claim they have the goods. My side is merely asking them to back that up with something other than their standard gobbledygook.
Krauze's initial post made a trivial point about reality (that big ideas take time), implied a fantasy (that ID has promise as a research program) and backed up the implication with a lot of spurious history (that there is any important parallel between the early days of evolution and modern ID). His reply disputes neither my claim that modern ID arguments are nonsense nor my claim that ID is nothing but a political movement (ignoring an argument is not the same as disputing it). He clearly implied that modern ID is at the level of Chambers' Vestiges
, which he describes as a work of pseudoscience. I suspect Behe and Dembski are having a Get Off My Side moment right now.